Impact of Pharmacotherapy on Drug Delivery Systems


Pharmacotherapy can be defined as the treatment and prevention of illness and disease by means of drugs of chemical or biological origin. It ranks among the most important methods of medical treatment, together with surgery, physical treatment, radiation and psychotherapy. Although it is almost impossible to estimate the exact extent of the impact of pharmacotherapy on human health, there can be no doubt that pharmacotherapy, together with improved sanitation, better diet and better housing, has improved people’s health, life expectancy and quality of life.

Unprecedented developments in genomics and molecular biology today offer a plethora of new drug targets. The use of modern chemical synthetic methods (such as combinatorial chemistry) enables the synthesis of a large number of new drug candidates in shorter times than ever before. At the same time, a better understanding of the immune system and rapid progress in molecular biology, cell biology and microbiology allow the development of modern vaccines against old and new challenges.

However, for all these exciting new drug and vaccine candidates, it is necessary to develop suitable dosage forms or drug delivery systems to allow the effective, safe and reliable application of these bioactive compounds to the patient. It is important to realize that the active ingredient is just one part of the medicine administered to the patient and it is the formulation of the drug into a dosage form or drug delivery system that translates drug discovery and pharmacological research into clinical practice.

Indeed the drug delivery system employed plays a vital role in controlling the pharmacological effect of the drug as it can influence the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug, the rate of drug release, the site and duration of drug action and subsequently the side-effect profile. An optimal drug delivery system ensures that the active drug is available at the site of action for the correct time and duration.

Drug delivery systems

Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.

· Drug delivery systems according to the physical state

Based on physical state, drug delivery systems may be:

– Gaseous (e.g. anaesthetics),

– Liquid (e.g. solutions, emulsions, suspensions),

– Semisolid (e.g. creams, ointments, gels and pastes) and

– Solid dosage forms (e.g. powders, granules, tablets and capsules).

· Drug delivery systems according to route of administration

Another way of differentiating dosage forms is according to their site or route of administration.

Parenteral drug delivery: Drugs can be administered directly into the body, through injection or infusion. Depending on the site of administration into the body it can be differentiated into:

a) Subcutaneous injection

b) Intramuscular injection

c) Intravenous injection

d) Intradermal injection

e) Intraperitoneal injection

Oral drug delivery: The oral route is the most popular route to administer drugs. Suspensions, tablets, capsules,etc are administered through this route.

– Topical drug delivery: Drugs can also be administered on to the skin to enter into the body. Mostly semisolid dosage forms are used for this, including creams, ointments, gels and pastes. However, liquid dosage forms, such as emulsions, or solid dosage forms, such as transdermal controlled drug delivery systems (patches), can also be used.

– Transmucosal: In this drugs are administered hrough nasal, buccal/sublingual, vaginal, ocular and rectal routes.

· Drug delivery systems according to mechanism of drug release

Another system that can be used to differentiate drug delivery systems is according to the way the drug is released. It can be differentiated as:

– Immediate release – drug is released immediately after administration.

– Modified release – drug release only occurs sometime after the administration or for a prolonged period of time or to a specific target in the body. Modified-release systems can be further classified as:

a) Delayed release: drug is released only at some point after the initial administration.

b) Extended release: prolongs the release to reduce dosing frequency

– Sustained release: These systems maintain the rate of drug release over a sustained period of time.

– Controlled release: Controlled-release systems also offer a sustained-release profile but, in contrast to sustained-release forms, controlled-release systems are designed to lead to predictably constant plasma concentrations, independently of the biological environment of the application site. This means that they are actually controlling the drug concentration in the body, not just the release of the drug from the dosage form, as is the case in a sustained-release system.

– Targeted drug delivery (smart drug delivery): It is a method of delivering medication to a patient in a manner that increases the concentration of the medication in some parts of the body relative to others. The goal of a targeted drug delivery system is to prolong, localize, target and have a protected drug interaction with the diseased tissue.


Artsy Shui Shirts

While action sports fashion usually manufacture street and art-inspired items, Shui does things differently. It’s a sports fashion brand that combines Hip-hop and tattoo-inspired concepts. They provide a classy and a gritty look for men  geekowear simultaneously in each clothing piece. Shui offers a line of artistic and unlikely clothing pieces such as tees, jerseys, shorts, pants, singlets, socks, sweats, and even accessories. While other tattoo-likened shirt imprints showcase classic tattoos, this brand’s products contain prints of the latest colored tattoos.

The Shui Tee shirts are the most interesting products among all. Wearing a signature shirt by this brand is like wearing a graffiti wall on. And in certain cases, the one who wears the shirts makes it look like a matching item with his tattoos (if any). The Shui Color Koi is one very artistic shirt. It’s a white shirt with prints of koi fish that look like they were drawn with a pencil. Psychedelic prints are also embedded behind that fish to represent water. The company’s Geisha head shirt is also a very elicit item. It’s a black shirt with a colorful print of a Geisha in a rather different artistic expression. This is a bold clothing piece that goes well with jeans and other sports trends.

The company’s Battle Scar Tee is also another simple yet very expressive item. It’s a crisp, white shirt printed with an armored samurai and a sword. The highlight of the shirt is the red splat of blood in the upper right corner of the shirt that forms like a battle scar and the brand’s signature logo at the same time. The Mind, Body, and Spirit tee is one of the company’s new designs for 2010. This shirt represents spirituality and how it works with the body and mind. It’s a black tee with a symbol brown print of a royal design. Along with it is another dark colored and very significant tee: the Script tee. It’s black with bright blue prints of the words, water, blood, and spirit. It also bears the company logo and other artistic, complimentary designs.



Increase Your Vocabulary by Browsing Online Book Stores

Have you ever thought of browsing online book stores to increase your vocabulary? Browsing online books is a great technique to increase and improve your vocabulary skills and at the same time find exciting novels or literature, all right at your fingertips. It is a creative and educational way to have fun for you and family members. All that is needed is a dictionary, a thesaurus, paper and pencil or Word document, time, and patience.

Learn from books online

Since the advent of computers, it has drastically changed the way we do things, in particular when it comes to convenience. Though libraries and book stores still exist, book stores online has made it possible gain knowledge and entertainment simple and easy. You do not have to experience the hassle of driving to the brick and mortar places thus allowing you more time to explore and discover.

What is the advantage of learning from books online?

These online stores have great descriptions, the synopsis, excerpts, and editorials of most publications that you can pick and choose the material needed for learning. The object is to learn new words, their meanings, and how they are used in sentences. Not to forget to mention, it will help children with reading. This technique is not trying to turn an individual into a scholar but will boost confidence in understanding and knowing how to apply certain words that are used in writings and verbal communication.

What is the technique?

First of all, take some time out of the day after work, away from the television, or other things that you routinely do. The time that is required would be 15 minutes to a half an hour but take as much time as you need. On your computer, do a search for book stores online and randomly choose a site to visit.

Next, select a subject from browsing books by subject such as fiction, non-fiction, horror, or children. Select a book title and begin reading descriptions, the synopsis, excerpts, and editorials in search for unfamiliar words. Words that you find unfamiliar, type or write them down along with the sentence if need be. Next, look up the word in the dictionary for the meaning and a thesaurus for related meanings and add to the selected word in your list. You are now building your vocabulary.


How To Sell Contemporary Art Online

Contemporary art is a hot topic in the art industry these days, and if you are an artist trying to establish yourself and get your art online you might be wondering, “Just what is contemporary art?” Contemporary art is defined as art that has been created during our lifetime, in other words art that is contemporary to us. Generally speaking this means any art from 1970 to present; 1970 is the commonly recognized cut off year because it is about this time that movements such as Postmodernism became widely known and thus indicated the end of the Modern art era.

As you’ve just read, there are differences between types of art, which if you are an artist you’re probably nodding your understanding of this. The question now is whether or not you know how to correctly label your art? In order to market your art online you need to be able to classify it in the correct category, tag it appropriately, and know what key words to put in your descriptions so that more potential buyers find their way to your art online. “Contemporary art” would of course be a good category, tag, and key word to use when putting a piece of contemporary fine art online. One of the best ways to make sure people are finding your art when they search for contemporary fine art online is to place one or two of the most powerful key words ( the most relevant ones ) in your description’s first sentence and in the tags area if you are making a blog or forum post about your art.

Going further into working with descriptions for your art is an examination of SEO. SEO stands for Search Engine Optimization and essentially covers anything you do to get noticed by search engines like Google. Some SEO techniques include using key words in your text that are relevant to your subject matter, so in your case it would be words relevant to contemporary art. Don’t forget to include words relevant to the types of art you create such as paintings or sculptures as well since these might be popular search terms too. To make your descriptions search engine friendly write them well and make sure each one is unique since duplicate content is not as beneficial for you as original content.

One more important thing you can do when posting and promoting your art online is to market your contemporary fine art work to contemporary art buyers who will searching for work like yours online. This means doing what I have mentioned above but also knowing when and where to talk about your work. Posting to art message boards, forums, and blogs is going to be much better than just posting on a random blog somewhere and hoping someone reads your post. You can also promote your contemporary art using social media sites and services like FaceBook, Twitter, and Google Plus. Regardless of how you promote your art it is important to have fun and spread the word about your work in a positive way.


How to Solve Online Treasure Hunts and Win Money!

Solving an online treasure hunt clue can be very difficult. Identifying the following 5 factors in any clue should help you to find the correct answer to that clue faster enabling you to win the money more efficiently. The 5 factors to look out for are as follows:

1. Anagrams – These are often used somewhere in an online treasure hunt clue. Simply put, the solution to an anagram clue is a rearrangement of a selection of letters to form a new word. There is usually a “hint” somewhere in the clue that identify an anagram is on the cards. These hints are typically simple words like ‘perhaps’, ‘strange’, ‘about’, ‘oddly’ and so on but you should be suspicious of virtually any word or phrase that means ‘change’ in some way.

2. Hidden Words – Theoretically hidden words should be the easiest thing to spot in treasure hunt clues, however they are often masked so well that you will not notice them even when they are staring you in the face! An example is shown in this short clue “Far out in East, admitting habit” – the solution is ‘routine’. Far out in East. Not easy to spot so be on the look out!

3. Word Constructions – These are again very common in online treasure hunts. They consist of a clue revealing two separate parts of a word. For example ‘rainbow’ would be shown by part of the clue meaning ‘rain’ and part meaning ‘bow’. It’s common to find that one or more of the words will have to be spelled backwards (usually indicated by the words ‘about’, ‘up’ or ‘turn’) or treated as an anagram. You’ll also find that frequently one of the words is split around one or more others, forming the start and end of the solution.

4. Initials – As the name suggests, the solution to an initial clue is formed from the initial letters of some or all of the words in the clue itself. As with all other clue types, occasionally you’ll find that initials are combined with others so you might find that you’ll need to take the initials and then form the solution as an anagram. Sometimes you won’t use all the words in the clue for initial letters and may have to form a solution as part of a word construction.

5. Straight – This clue is usually where the solution simply fits the clue and there are no hints or tips along the way. This in itself is a good pointer to the straight clue type – if you can rule out anagrams, hidden words and so on then you’ve probably got a straight clue.

Identifying these five factors will make it easier for you to find the solution to your online treasure hunts and the faster you get at identifying these the more chance you will have in solving the treasure hunt quickly and efficiently enabling you to bag the cash before anybody else does! Happy Hunting.


The History of Word Searches

Being a relatively simple concept at its core, one might think that the word search has existed in some form for many years. Yet that’s not actually the case, as word searches are less than 50 years old, and came about well after the creation of several other popular word-related games such as crossword puzzles and scrabble.

The man credited with creating the first word search is Norman Gibat, who published them in a small local paper in Normal, Oklahoma devoted to classified listings called the Selenby Digest. The word searches instantly caught on, and soon local teachers were requesting additional copies as activities for their students. Before long they were sending them to other teachers outside their district, and word searches eventually became syndicated, appearing in newspapers around the world.

Online word searches are now plentiful, and can be tackled in any manner of different formats, from the smallest boards typical of newspapers or children’s publications, to the most gargantuan, housing dozens of words hidden amongst hundreds of letters. Some puzzles may only place words in forward positions, some only vertically and horizontally, while others also place them backwards and diagonally. In some puzzles the words will not overlap each other, meaning each letter us only used for one word or none at all, while others do overlap.


5 Important Things Every Condo Should Have

The demand for condos is still high and a good number of developers are making them available to meet with the market demands. New condos come with better amenities, units and benefits and they are not really equal. Some are better than others, but there are things or features that you can use to be sure that the condo you are interested in is really worth the money you are going to spend on it.

1. Good location

To many people, location seems like a cliché but it is something that still remains to be very important. If you are looking at a long time investment with your condo, then you cannot afford to overlook the location. The location should work in terms of family needs, culture, career and relaxation. In essence, a good condo will be located in the area that you love and one that is most convenient for you.

2. Luxury

It is amongst the things that make condos loved and above normal housing units. Luxury units tend to appreciate much faster and keep their value; hence you know that you have made a good investment in a good luxurious condo. When checking your options, make sure that you consider the landscaping, interior features and even the building materials used just to be sure of the quality that you get.

3. Privacy

Condos are part of a larger property, meaning that there will be several units in one block. But this should not in any way compromise your privacy. Good developers are thoughtful, even where the walls are shared between the units by putting soundproof walls and intelligent layouts that ensure every unit enjoys a good level of privacy. When looking for the best unit, consider what noise reduction measures have been put in place, what the balcony looks out to and every aspect that touches on privacy. It can really make a difference when it comes to truly enjoying your condo.

4. Modern amenities

Today, amenities go beyond luxurious sitting spaces and appliances. A good modern condo will have other important amenities such as fully equipped fitness center, internet, sheltered parking, garden, pools and others that really make life comfortable and convenient. Some properties are designed so well that they come with mini shopping areas for the convenience of the residents. Find out what your condo has to offer you beforehand in terms of amenities made available.

5. Reliable security

It is amongst the most important and you should feel absolutely safe when within or away from the property. New modern condos have everything taken care of from surveillance camera systems to high tech door lock systems and electric fences among others. Even if the property is not gated, it should at least have reliable security solutions for all tenants. You do not want to ignore the security levels of the property because compromised security can give you sleepless nights and restless days. A good condo should give you peace of mind as far as your safety and security goes.


Thinking About Cosmetic Plastic Surgery? Learn the Truth About Your Surgeon’s Board Certification

When I got my ABPS Board Certification, I wanted to walk around with it taped to my forehead. It’s that hard to get. So, why does that matter to you?

The American Board of Plastic Surgery (ABPS) is the only accredited board for plastic surgery in the United States.

One of your early and most important decisions about having plastic surgery is the obvious: Who is going to do your surgery? Who is it that, above all others, you trust enough to understand your goals, listen to your fears, perform the procedures competently with the best results possible, and stick with you through thick and thin during your recovery period, no matter what?

Ever thought of it this way? You should.

With the popularity of plastic surgery, there recently has been an increase in untrained physicians performing plastic surgical procedures. Interestingly, it is not illegal for a licensed physician to perform any procedure, regardless of whether they were properly trained. The media has featured surgeons performing plastic surgical procedures on various TV shows as presumed experts, without verifying credentials, contributing to mass confusion, and putting patients at increased risk of dangerous situations they may never be aware of.

We are learning to ask if a plastic surgeon is “board certified,” but even that can be confusing because one could answer “yes” if they are certified by another specialty board or a non-accredited board. There are a number of “boards” out there which are not accredited, some of which have very impressive and important sounding names which easily fool the patient into thinking that certain training and qualifications are present when in fact they are not. And, by the way, there is no such thing as the “Oprah Board.”

All accredited medical boards are listed on the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) website ( You can check there for any specialty to see if your doctor’s Board is accredited. And, by the way, did I mention –

The American Board of Plastic Surgery ( is the only accredited board for plastic surgery in the United States.

There really are such things as “weekend courses” or other reduced training programs that award a “board” of some type. In the medical community, we sometimes joke about these “smorgasboards.” The training required, or lack thereof, can be a mystery. Fortunately, this is easily sorted out– If they do not measure up to the American Board of Medical Specialties rigorous standards, they are not accredited and are not listed on their site as an accredited board.

Surgeons certified by the ABPS are also members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) – famous for the “circle logo” (

So the question is not “Are you board certified?”

The question is “What Board?”

Hint: You should be able to find your surgeon by name on both the ABPS and the ASPS sites.

When you visit my office, if I forgot to tape my certificate to my forehead that morning you can ask me about my boards– I will be very impressed. Of COURSE then, like a kid with a great report card, I will then want to show you all the certificates, talk about the many years of training that went into achieving this milestone, how I traded my youth for it (ok, a little dramatic), etc. So be prepared!


Versatile Uses of Plastic Handles

Industrial handles are important for many commercial as well as residential applications. They serve to make life easier and more functional to consumers in getting a good and firm grip on doors, windows and all components that need to be opened and closed. Handles and knobs are common entities on components in numerous life applications whether at home or elsewhere.


There are many types of handles; they can be made of different materials such as plastic, wood, metal, rubber or wrought iron in a myriad of shapes, sizes and designs. Each design would be well stocked to cater to its respective function.

Plastic handles are very common in various industries, homes and commercial environment. They are usually stocked and available in various styles and sizes that include multi-lobes, indexing and soft touch as well as bridge styles.

Besides plastic, handles can come in other types of materials such as polypropylene which is cost effective and hardy against water and solvents. There are phenolic handles which offer a high gloss finish with a resistance to oils, greases and fuels. Such material offers excellent electrical and thermal resistance.

Some industrial plastic handles offer soft gripping features which were designed for applications that require that firmness. Maximum grip with comfort is available to impact resistance for turning and opening.

There are applications in confined space which require indexing or clamping plastic handles. These are high density plastic that are tough to function like a wrench in tight places. These are indexing handles with a soft touch overlay which is excellent for heavy duty applications. Bridge handles as well as drawer pulls can also be of plastic material in different colors.


Industrial or commercial handles have many applications; there are machine handles made of strong plastic that can endure high temperature which can be found in many heavy duty industries such as production and manufacturing.

Spring loaded hinged plastic handles are found in applications that need that extra force support with the presence of a spring while indexing handles can be heavy duty for the extra pressure in heavy duty factory performances. Plastic bridge handles are common in many commercial applications as they come in various forms and colors to make them an attractive sight in their environments. These handles can be made very strong and scratch resistant with socket head screws for the cap. Lift & Turn shaped plastic handles allow users an easy hold and grip for any application they are used in. Similarly, plastic quarter turn handles are popular as they are lighter than metal.


Types and Benefits of Plastic Fasteners

Plastic fasteners have grown to become viable products for joining applications in various industries. They are regarded as suitable alternatives to metal fasteners, and are known for their flexibility, durability, and application versatility. The various material features and benefits makes them ideal products for applications in a variety of industries such as aviation, marine, automotive, construction, oil and gas, food and beverage, sewage plants, and heavy machinery.

Types of Plastic Fasteners

Plastic product manufacturers can produce a variety of fasteners to meet the needs of various applications. Examples of well-known fasteners include:


  • Rivets
  • Nylon Threaded Rods
  • Plugs
  • Bolts
  • Plastic Threaded Rods
  • Bushes
  • Nuts
  • Grommets
  • Clips
  • Plastic Screws
  • Cable Ties


Benefits of Plastic Fasteners

One of the reasons behind the popularity is that they can be manufactured using a variety of plastic materials. The following are some of the popular plastic materials used to manufacture fasteners.

Nylon: Possibly one of the most well-known fastener materials, nylon is known for its resistance to corrosion, electric conductivity, extreme weather, strong chemicals, and abrasions. It displays low friction, mechanical stability, and does not require any lubrication in an application.

Acetal: Also known as Delrin, this material is popular due to features such as high stiffness, stability, and low friction. It is resistant to heat and abrasions, and possesses dielectric properties.

Polyvinyl Chloride: PVC is non-toxic, optimizes fastener performance, chemical stability, resistant to chemicals, and is inexpensive.

Kynar: Polyvinylidene fluoride or PVDF is generally used in applications that require pure and high strength materials. PVDF is resistant to acids, solvents, heat and smoke generation. It has low density and can even be injected, molded and welded.

Phenolics: By nature, phenolics is a hydrophobic material, which makes it the perfect replacement for metal fasteners in water related applications. It provides good resistance to alkalis and acids.

Apart from the materials, plastic fasteners can provide other benefits to the product manufacturer and his customers.

Ease of Use and Durability: These can be easily removed after fastening and reused, making them reliable and long-lasting.

Can Replace Metal Fasteners in Applications: These prove to be the best solutions for applications where metals can rust and corrode.

Performance Maintenance: While metal fasteners have been required to be optimized for better performance, plastic fasteners have been able to maintain their performance, and are available in standard and custom designs. These fasteners can be designed with high strength so that they don’t get hot or melt under pressure. Plastic does not conduct electricity, making plastic fasteners extremely useful in applications where electricity can adversely affect a machine’s performance.

Versatility: If required, plastic fasteners can also be used along with metal fasteners to improve the seal of fastening holes and prevent contaminants like dirt and dust from entering the hole. For example, a toggle fixer can be used with a metal screw to seal a hole. The fixer expands when a metal screw is driven into it, thus locking the fixer in place and providing complete sealing. They can be manufactured in various colors, which enhances their aesthetic appeal in an application.

Miscellaneous Advantages: In many industrial applications, designers, and engineers choose to use plastic fasteners for benefits like good chemical and acid resistance, thermal and electrical insulation, and water tolerance.