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The Eastern Han Dynastry

The end of the Western Han Dynasty was a result of the royal power falling into the hands of the Wang Family. Wang Mang (the empress’s brother) forced Emperor RuZi to abdicate and proclaiming himself as emperor, ending the Western Han Dynasty and starting the Xin dynasty. However the beginning of his rule was filled with controversial reforms, and led to mass revolts. Some of his resented reforms were the banning of slavery and the redistribution of land however his biggest mistake was the continuing reforms (up to 7 times) of the currency system which bankrupted many people. This resentment coupled with mass droughts throughout China and a dubious ascension to the throne triggered large scale uprisings.

The hatred for Emperor Wang Mang was so strong that in 17 AD, 2 major insurgents groups formed; the Green Wood men and the red brow men. A man named Liu Xiu and his elder brother (members of the Han royal family) joined the Green Wood Army under the leadership of Liu Xian who after defeating Wang Mang and ended the Xin Dynasty declared himself Emperor Gengshi.

Even though the Xin dynasty was defeated China was not united. During the uprising many stated declared their independents. Emperor Gengshi sent Liu Xiu to rebel any rebellion factions and to govern many states. Liu Xiu’s states were the only states that were governed effectively and as Emperor Gengshi’s power declined Liu Xiu power increased. In 25 AD Emperor Gengshi government collapse through war and incompetents and Liu proclaimed himself Emperor Geng Wu, making LuoYang City the capital. He restored the Han Dynasty and referred to his dynasty as the Eastern Han Dynasty, to distinguish it from the Western Han Dynasty.

In 37, Emperor Guang Wu (Formerly known as Liu Xiu) destroyed Chi Mei, Wei Xiao, Gong Sunshu and the other independent states and united the country. Emperor Guang Wu abolished Wang Mang’s misrules, stopped the wars, and strengthened the culture and education. During that period the social was stable and this period was named ‘Guang Wu Zhong Xing’.

The period from 57 to 88 AD was Emperor Zhang’s reign and Eastern Han scholars came to view this time as the high point of the dynasty, as later emperors had the ever increasingly involvement of eunuchs and relatives because of the early age of the emperors.

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Tamil Cinema News

Tamil Cinema News

Vishnu Vishal and Suseenthiran jointly made their debut with ‘Vennila Kabaddi Kuzhu’ and both are back once again with a super hit movie in their previous outing ‘Pandiya Naadu’ & ‘Mundasupatti’. Ever since the lively trailer started to make its round over the net, it has struck the right chord with the audience who love to watch the film on the big screen.

Story:

The plot is easily relatable and this could well be y(our) story. Cricket is more of a religion than a sport in our country, and Suseenthiran has sketched a wonderful tale in the background of easily approachable yet a dream filled with mirage for many. Jeeva‘s dream is to become a cricketer, but his dad cannot afford to accomplish his ambition initially. Just like others, Jeeva falls in love with Jenny and what happens to his love and ambition has been explained really well in this crispy 127 minute tale.

Screenplay & Dialogues:

Suseenthiran has woven a no nonsense screenplay, and he plays with the imagination of the audience to the most part of the movie. As a viewer you get to see the story pans out as you expect it to be; but the way Suseenthiran has shown it on screen is a treat to watch! Be it the love episode of Vishnu & Sri Divya or the process of Vishnu’s transformation as a serious cricketer is pretty close to reality. As a writer, Suseenthiran slaps the Cricket Association of Tamilnadu with facts, and it does make sense. The way he questioned the monopoly and the favoritism towards a particular community is gutsy.

Casting:

Roping Vishnu Vishal to this script is perfect, and being a real life cricketer, Vishnu has given it all to look authentic on the screen. He emotes well, and delivers the dialogues perfectly. The heroine, Sri Divya is cute as a school goer, beautiful as a college student, and looks matured when her role wants her to be. T. Siva and Charlie are flawless in their given role, and Soori replicates his magic once again to induce few laughs without swaying away from the storyline.

 

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How To Buy The Best Espresso Machine

The increase in popularity for espresso coffee has indeed brought about a rise in revenue for espresso related businesses. Besides being able to find more varieties of espresso drinks and flavors now, one can also find more models and designs of espresso machines which can make different kinds of espresso coffees. As such, how do we find which is the best espresso machine then? Read on and you will be able to find some useful tips in this article.

It is actually not hard to make different types of espresso and anyone can do it but what you need is the right kind of machine. Your choice of the best espresso maker depends largely on your personal preference and what you need the machine for. Are you using it primarily for home use or do you need it for your coffee-related business? These are vital questions to consider first because if you want it for home use, then you probably just need a simple one with the basic features. Such espresso machines will cost less and you can even get a very good one for under $100.

On the other hand, if you are running a business and you need the espresso machine for your shop, then you might need a more elaborated one with more features and it has also to be heavy duty. No doubt, you will expect to pay much more for a commercial espresso maker. Nevertheless, it is a worthwhile investment since you will most probably make a lot of money out of it since espresso coffee is well-loved by so many coffee lovers these days.

Besides considering what you need the espresso maker for, the next important point to note is that you should buy one which is pump-driven, rather than steam-driven. The pump-driven espresso maker will make it very convenient for you in making espresso and these are also the only kinds of machines that can make the foamy crema on the top layer of your espresso coffee.

The next point to take note of is whether you want a stove top espresso machine or an electric espresso maker? The stove top maker will require you to make your espresso on your stovetop and they are steam-driven machines. It works by forcing the hot water that is boiled at the bottom of the espresso maker to the middle of the machine and makes the beverage. However, take note that you are not likely to get the rich, foamy cream that you would usually find on espressos.

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The Benefits and Features of Personal Loans

Personal loans are available on a variety of products. Installment loans and lines of credit are two feasible options for borrowing money. However, there are significant differences between the two types. With this breakdown, you can determine which solution is the best fit for you.

What is an Installment Loan?

An installment loan is the most common type among personal loans. It is a one-time, lump sum of money that you can borrow from your bank or another lender. You are required to pay it back over a set period of time. The standard repayment schedule is comprised of a series of monthly payments. They are accompanied by a fixed annual percentage rate (APR).

Benefits and Features

Because of the pre-determined provisions outlined, you will know exactly how much to pay your lender each month. It eliminates surprises and simple miscalculations. The fixed terms allow you to plan better and be in control of your finances. This personal loan is ideal for college tuition, home improvements, and refinancing. It is also an optimal finance option for purchasing big-ticket items such as a house, car, boat, or RV.

What is a Line of Credit?

A line of credit provides money, as you need it. A lender determines an approved amount for a line of credit. You can then withdraw from that amount as the need arises. Your payments and APR will vary. They are based on the outstanding balance owed, your payment history, and other aspects of your lender’s criteria. Be sure to read the fine print, so you will have full disclosure.

 

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The Benefits and Features of Personal Loans

Personal loans are available on a variety of products. Installment loans and lines of credit are two feasible options for borrowing money. However, there are significant differences between the two types. With this breakdown, you can determine which solution is the best fit for you.

What is an Installment Loan?

An installment loan is the most common type among personal loans. It is a one-time, lump sum of money that you can borrow from your bank or another lender. You are required to pay it back over a set period of time. The standard repayment schedule is comprised of a series of monthly payments. They are accompanied by a fixed annual percentage rate (APR).

Benefits and Features

Because of the pre-determined provisions outlined, you will know exactly how much to pay your lender each month. It eliminates surprises and simple miscalculations. The fixed terms allow you to plan better and be in control of your finances. This personal loan is ideal for college tuition, home improvements, and refinancing. It is also an optimal finance option for purchasing big-ticket items such as a house, car, boat, or RV.

What is a Line of Credit?

A line of credit provides money, as you need it. A lender determines an approved amount for a line of credit. You can then withdraw from that amount as the need arises. Your payments and APR will vary. They are based on the outstanding balance owed, your payment history, and other aspects of your lender’s criteria. Be sure to read the fine print, so you will have full disclosure.

 

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700 Credit Score – Ways to Improve Your FICO Credit Scores to 700 Or Higher

In this current credit market we are in you need to have a 700 credit score to even get lenders to consider giving you credit. If you have a low credit score then you know that the lower your score is the more of a negative effect it will have on your borrowing capabilities.

If your FICO credit score is less than 700 and you are looking for ways to improve your credit rating then read on. You will learn how a low credit score impacts your life and ways to how to have credit score above 700 and get the loan with lower interest rates and better terms.

How a Low Credit Score Impacts Your Life

There are so many aspects of your life that a low score impacts but you don’t realize just how detrimental it can be. Did you know that having a bad FICO score can impact your ability to get a job as many employers now check credit reports?

Your vehicle and homeowners insurance rates are also negatively impacted and you will need to have bigger deposits for your policies and you will pay more than someone with a higher score. What’s more, now some insurance companies won’t even write policies to applicants that don’t have good credit.

You will also find that if you need a loan you will be at the mercy of the lender. You will have no leverage and you will get much higher interest rates and the terms will be less than desirable.

Ways to Achieve a 700 Credit Score or Higher

Having a 700 FICO score takes a little effort on your part but it can be done. The first thing you need to do is get a copy of your credit report from all three major credit bureaus. You need to see what is actually on the reports.

Start by cleaning up any old bad accounts on the report. For example, if you have a bad account that is 7 years old you need to write and ask that it be removed. Many people have the misconception that they automatically “fall off,” this is not the case. Leave all good standing accounts open no matter how old they are, in fact the older the account the better. This gives you a longer credit history and raises your score.

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The Erotic Films History of Turkey – The First All-Turkish Pornographic Film

Movie-making Turks haven’t been shy about including earthy subjects or fleshy cinematic scenes in their films since as far back as the 1950’s. That’s when street-walking prostitutes, drug-dependent harem girls, topless damsels in distress, soapy half-naked bathers, sexually provocative belly dancers, and uninvited-lovemaking first began appearing in conventional Turkish moving-pictures.

The ‘intensity’ of erotic action in conventional Turkish films escalated in the 1960’s when ‘lite’ erotic opposite-sex scenes began to heat up. And in Atif Yilmaz’s otherwise conventional Iki Gemi Yanyana (Two Ships Side by Side), the first lesbian Turkish movie scene — a scorcher for its day, in which Suzan Avci and Sevda Nur french-kissed on camera — gave Turkish movie goers a shock when it was first shown in 1963.

Female cinematic sex-symbols during the ‘Age of the Turkish Vamp’ (1950s – 1960s) included Neriman Köksal (who made 177 films between 1950 to 1995), Funda Yanar [pictured on our website as a topless dancer in Büyük Sehrin Kanunu (Big City Law, 1965] and Leyla Sayar — who, in 1960, performed a memorably bold (we are told) strip-tease act in Atif Yilmaz’s Ölüm Perdesi (Death Curtain)… But Leyla Hanim drew the line in 1972, when she realized the direction in which the seks filmleri furyasi (erotic films boom) would lead her. And after a short stint as a night club dancer, she quit the entertainment business altogether… opting instead for a simple, pious life.

But it wasn’t until 1972 that Parcali Behçet (starring action-man Behçet Nacar) — which was made in a desperate attempt by film-makers to woo audiences away from their newly acquired home TVs and back to near-empty movie theaters seats — became the first Turkish film to be produced exclusively for purposes of eroticism.

And when Parcali Behçet attracted an overflow opening-day crowd of 7,000 to its initial showing in Konya (Mevlana’s ‘hometown’, in the heart of Turkish religious conservatism) Turkish film-makers took notice (and heart). Subsequently, when the film enjoyed a 6-month run, in two side-by-side theaters smack in middle of that fair city, well, film-makers believed they’d found the holy grail. And from that time through to 1979, the production of erotik Turkish films mushroomed.

The three most popular genres for legally produced Turkish erotik films between 1972 and 1978 were Comedy, Adventure, and Murder Mystery. And they all had a not-very-well-kept secret about them in common. The secret was that Turkish actors and actresses didn’t perform the sex-act for real. They only simulated it… Men wore underwear (briefs) and camera angles were chosen to cover up the fact — sometimes without much success. Their are lots of flashes of men’s white briefs in the Turkish erotik films made between 1972 and 1978!

Any for-real sex that appeared in these films was performed by foreigners in parcalar (movie film clips) that were inserted at predictable intervals of the Turkish film. Sometimes these parcalar were made specifically for the Turkish film in which they appeared, but in most cases they were just crude cuts of foreign films — often entirely inappropriate (in focus or coloring) to the Turkish film.

That sort of erotik film-making subterfuge came to a screeching halt in 1979, when the first all-Turkish cast was filmed in the first-ever legally produced and distributed gloves-off pornographic Turkish film, Öyle Bir Kadin Ki (A Woman Like That) — directed by Naki Yurter, starring Zerrin Dogan and Levent Günsel in the leading female and male roles.

 

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How to Evaluate Embedded Software Testing Tools

You Can’t Evaluate a Test Tool by Reading a Data Sheet

All data sheets look pretty much alike. The buzzwords are the same: “Industry Leader”, “Unique Technology”, “Automated Testing”, and “Advanced Techniques”. The screen shots are similar: “Bar Charts”, “Flow Charts”, “HTML reports” and “Status percentages”. It is mind numbing.

What is Software Testing?

All of us who have done software testing realize that testing comes in many flavors. For simplicity, we will use three terms in this paper:

 

  • System Testing
  • Integration Testing
  • Unit Testing

 

Everyone does some amount of system testing where they do some of the same things with it that the end users will do with it. Notice that we said “some” and not “all.” One of the most common causes of applications being fielded with bugs is that unexpected, and therefore untested, combinations of inputs are encountered by the application when in the field.

Not as many folks do integration testing, and even fewer do unit testing. If you have done integration or unit testing, you are probably painfully aware of the amount of test code that has to be generated to isolate a single file or group of files from the rest of the application. At the most stringent levels of testing, it is not uncommon for the amount of test code written to be larger than the amount of application code being tested. As a result, these levels of testing are generally applied to mission and safety critical applications in markets such as aviation, medical device, and railway.

What Does “Automated Testing” Mean?

It is well known that the process of unit and integration testing manually is very expensive and time consuming; as a result every tool that is being sold into this market will trumpet “Automated Testing” as their benefit. But what is “automated testing”? Automation means different things to different people. To many engineers the promise of “automated testing” means that they can press a button and they will either get a “green check” indicating that their code is correct, or a “red x” indicating failure.

Unfortunately this tool does not exist. More importantly, if this tool did exist, would you want to use it? Think about it. What would it mean for a tool to tell you that your code is “Ok”? Would it mean that the code is formatted nicely? Maybe. Would it mean that it conforms to your coding standards? Maybe. Would it mean that your code is correct? Emphatically No!

Completely automated testing is not attainable nor is it desirable. Automation should address those parts of the testing process that are algorithmic in nature and labor intensive. This frees the software engineer to do higher value testing work such as designing better and more complete tests.

The logical question to be asked when evaluating tools is: “How much automation does this tool provide?” This is the large gray area and the primary area of uncertainty when an organization attempts to calculate an ROI for tool investment.

Anatomy of Test Tools

Test Tools generally provide a variety of functionality. The names vendors use will be different for different tools, and some functionality may be missing from some tools. For a common frame of reference, we have chosen the following names for the “modules” that might exist in the test tools you are evaluating:

Parser: The parser module allows the tool to understand your code. It reads the code, and creates an intermediate representation for the code (usually in a tree structure). Basically the same as the compiler does. The output, or “parse data” is generally saved in an intermediate language (IL) file.

CodeGen: The code generator module uses the “parse data” to construct the test harness source code.

Test Harness: While the test harness is not specifically part of the tool; the decisions made in the test harness architecture affect all other features of the tool. So the harness architecture is very important when evaluating a tool.

Compiler: The compiler module allows the test tool to invoke the compiler to compile and link the test harness components.

Target: The target module allows tests to be easily run in a variety of runtime environments including support for emulators, simulators, embedded debuggers, and commercial RTOS.

Test Editor: The test editor allows the user to use either a scripting language or a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI) to setup preconditions and expected values (pass/fail criteria) for test cases.

Coverage: The coverage module allows the user to get reports on what parts of the code are executed by each test.

Reporting: The reporting module allows the various captured data to be compiled into project documentation.

CLI: A command line interface (CLI) allows further automation of the use of the tool, allowing the tool to be invoked from scripts, make, etc.

Regression: The regression module allows tests that are created against one version of the application to be re-run against new versions.

Integrations: Integrations with third-party tools can be an interesting way to leverage your investment in a test tool. Common integrations are with configuration management, requirements management tools, and static analysis tools.

Later sections will elaborate on how you should evaluate each of these modules in your candidate tools.

 

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Electronics Recycling – What You Should Know

Electronics are hazardous wastes, but it hard to picture that when you buy a new television, computer, or any form of electronics. These electronics become hazardous waste when they have reached the end of their useful life. This is why it is so important that electronics recycling be done. In most cities, there are recycling centers that are set up specifically to deal with these end of life electronics. They know what needs to be done when they are recycled and will dispose of them in the safest manner possible.

When an electronic product needs to be replaced, this is when electronics recycling starts. Many feel that it is okay to throw the electronics into the trash but what they do not think about is that there could harmful material in the machines, like mercury, that is not good for the environment. You should make sure that you find a proper means to dispose of your electronics. Electronics recycling, in some jurisdictions, law may mandate it.

If you have upgraded your computer system and the old system or part of it is still functioning consider donating it an organization that accepts these electronics. These organizations can include churches that help people with a low income, thrift stores, and more. You can also sell them online. The highest and most efficient way to do electronics recycling is to reuse them. If the items cannot be reused, there are other options to get rid of them.

In some countries and the United States, the community may offer electronics recycling as part of their waste disposal service. You can check with your local recycling center to find out what is offered. If they do not offer a pickup service, they may have a location where you can take electronics to be recycled. In some cities, they may have a set day that they collect electronics for recycling.

You can also use a private company for electronics recycling. Depending on the electronics value to the company, they may charge for certain component. Make sure that if you choose a private company that they will dispose of any hazardous materials in the ways that are mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency. There are some companies that may “claim” to do electronics recycling but all they do is strip down the parts that are useful and have a market value and then they will dispose of the rest of the electronic improperly. By doing this it can put harmful materials into the environment. This would be the same as someone just throwing out their electronics in the trash. All electronic recycling companies will strip out the useful parts but the legal ones will dispose of the rest correctly.

 

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Do Not Track Into The Casinos! Advice From a Casino Gambling Professional

As casinos are being built around the world due to their ease of generating income for the various governments of different countries, more and more innocent victims to gambling are getting caught in the tangle of endless web of problem gambling.

As a professional in the casino gambling arena, I personally would like to help all these victims to prepare themselves or at least see whether they should even venture into the casinos for that pot of gold.

Many a times, a new gambler would feel lucky and enter the casino for a game of chance. The problem with newbies is that they may come out winning a few hundreds to a few thousands and thought that they will forever be that lucky.

The main problem with people who never gamble at casinos before and decided once in their lifetime that they will try their hand at the casinos, is that they cannot see eye to eye with money lost and money won.

And because of that, if they on the first try won a few couple of a hundred bucks, and maybe even a few thousands of dollars for the few lucky ones, it is only a matter of time that they will think about going into the casinos again.

The end point is that they will be lured into the casinos again and again and they will eventually lose everything they have got. That is the strategy of the casinos and it is this which makes the casinos very wealthy – the emotions of greedy people.

Here are some tips to see if you are indeed ready to walk into the casinos and maybe further yourself to become a professional casino player:

If you are overwhelmed at the sight of money lost or money gained, especially if they are in huge amounts, then please don’t make this plunge to try to make a living as a casino professional. You do not have any qualities whatsoever.

If you cannot control your emotions at getting a revenge on the casinos and are easily affected by the environment and the gorgeous people in the casinos, then please leave this industry now.

To take this commitment of professional gambling or rather playing as true casino professionals called our line of work, you must have a very composed and cool mind at all times in and out of the casinos.

Money to you is secondary concern. If it is your primary concern, then you will lose it in the end. The cycle is vicious, do not let this get to you. That is why money must not be your first concern.

Always remove all types of possible ways to draw more money at the casinos. Only bring what you intend to play and have a target of winning amount that is realistic and get out of the casino after that.

Set your losses to such strategy like 3 losing streaks and then stop all play. This kind of mindset puts you in better focus especially if you are winning and suddenly things start to turn around.

Professional casino gambling is not for those with a faint-heart. It is not very glamorous, and at many occasions it is more taxing to the mind and soul of those who truly are professionals. Why? It is due to the fact that you need to be very quick in your thinking and maybe for some games need your calculations and quick eyes and alertness for any loopholes.

All these are done at very distracting situations, for the very fact that the casinos are so beautiful to be in and together with many beautiful women and huge amounts of cash in transaction, and not to forget noisy gamblers and irritating grannies and aunties, you will find yourself very challenging to concentrate what you set out to accomplish.

In the end, it is always the greed and emotional revengeful thoughts that will provoke you to more losses. That is why if you cannot pull all stops to these emotions, it is better for you to just try your luck at simple lottery with just a few dollars to spare.