On July 20, 1969, during one of the defining moments of the human history, Neil Armstrong became the first man to step on the surface of Earth’s Moon. In his own words, it was truly “one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.”
However, according to many conspiracy theorists, all the U.S. landings on the moon were faked, and all the photos and videos were made only on the film stage.
The results of recent survey have shown, that about 20% of Americans still believe to this day, that the United States of America never really made it to the Moon. In this article, we are going to look on 5 of the most frequent arguments for the moon landing hoax, and disprove them step-by-step, using the available evidence.
1. The Waving Flag
According to this argument, frequently cited by the people who think that the moon landings were nothing more but a hoax, is that the star-spangled banner of the United States of America seemed to wave and flutter as Neil Armstrong planted it to the ground. This wouldn’t have been much of an issue except for the fact that there is virtually no atmosphere on the moon, and therefore no wind whatsoever to have such an effect on any flag.
However, if we look closely on the original moon landing footage, we can see that the flag is actually standing still, and not moving in any way during the entire tape. But why is the flag still?
To make the flag stand still on the moon, the flag was actually made from plastic material, similar to the one that tents are usually made of. For practical reasons, the flag was originally folded to maximize space and stored in a thin tube. After Neil Armstrong planted it to the surface of the Moon, it briefly appeared to move as it was unfolding itself to its final shape.
2. Multiple Light Sources
On the moon, there is only one light source sufficiently strong to form shadows; the Sun. So it is solid to suggest that all shadows on the Moon should run parallel to each other. However, this was apparently not the case during the moon landing.
Most of the photos and video recordings clearly show that some shadows fall in different directions. Conspiracy theoretics often suggest that multiple sources of light were present, and that all the landing photos and videos were taken in a film studio.
However, the truth is more prosaic. As it is on Earth, landscape of the Moon is not perfectly flat. Because of the uneven surface with bumps and small hills, shadows cast on different vertical angles had also large horizontal angular differences. On the photo above, shadows of the lunar module and the rocks point in slightly different directions. However, the lunar module is standing on flat ground and the rocks are located on a small bump(similar setting has been also recreated by the Mythbusters, proving the conspiracy wrong)